AIT
Advanced Intelligent Tape (AIT) A form of magnetic tape and drive using AME developed by Sony for storing large amounts of data. An AIT can store over 50 gigabytes and transfer data at six megabytes/second (in February 1999). AIT features high speed file access, long head and media life, the ALDC compression algorithm, and a MIC chip.
atime
In Unix & Linux filesystems, such as Mac OS X, AIX, HP-UX, BSD, Linux and Solaris (among others) there are three times that the filesystem keeps track of. One of those times is the "atime" or "access time" of the file. The atime is updated each time the file is accessed (simply opening the file to be read). The atime does not change on permission or ownership changed since the file never gets opened. The best way to view the atime of a file is to use the "ls -lu " command.
Bridged Networking
A type of network connection that lets a virtual machine be identified on an external network as a unique identity that is separate from and unrelated to its host computer.
BRU
Pronounced "brew", it means Backup and Restore Utility. The TOLIS Group product I/O engine was first created in 1985 and today remains the most reliable backup and recovery utility available for Mac OS X, Linux, Unix, and Windows systems.
BRU Server
A backup and restore software application made by TOLIS Group for heterogeneous networks from 2 or more clients.
BRU Server Agent
This is the software that's installed on any machine that needs to be backed up by BRU Server. If you want to backup the BRU Server Server, then the BRU Server Agent software needs to be installed on that system as well. This is not to be confused with 'client'. The client is the machine that the BRU Server Agent software is installed on.
BRU Server Console
This is the management graphical user interface for BRU Server. It is available for Linux, Mac OS X, and Windows systems.
BRU Server Server
This is the machine that is actually performing the backup operations and where the BRU Server Server software is installed.
BRU's Smart Restore™
Like most Unix-based operating systems, Linux and Mac OS X use shared files. These files are always active and are critical to system operation. A system crash can be a very real occurrence when trying to restore (overwrite) an active shared file. Before BRU attempts to restore a shared file it will move the existing file with its text busy flag (whether set, or not) and its memory pointers to a temporary location so the system can continue to operate. BRU then places the file being restored in the original location. The moved file is then removed from its temporary location when the system is rebooted.
bruxpat
Short for BRU Exclusion Patterns, it's the file that BRU, BRU LE, BRU PE and BRU Server use to excluded specific files and folders for all backup operations.
btime
In Mac OS X, the btime is referred to as the "Backup Time" of a file. This time reference is stored to keep track of when the last time a file was backed up. Mac OS X is the only place where the btime is checked by BRU since other operating systems have other uses and definitions for btime.
CLI
Command Line Interface - The command line that's used on all operating systems. Called a Terminal on Mac OS X, and Linux; while it's called the Command Prompt on Windows systems.
CRU
CRU (Crash Recovery Utility) - CRU for Linux is an automated crash recovery utility for Intel-based (x86) Linux systems that is developed as a companion program for TOLIS Group's BRU Software. CRU is released under the QPL license.
ctime
In Unix & Linux file systems such as Mac OS X, BSD, AIX, HP-UX, and Linux (there are many others), the files system stores three times about a file. One of those times is called the "ctime" or "change time" of the file. This change time is the timestamp in which the inode of the file has changed. This can happen by way of changing owership, access permissions or when the last time the file's contents were updated. The best way to view the ctime of a file is to use the "ls -lc " command.
D2D
Short for "Disk-to-Disk."
D2D2T
Short for "Disk-to-Disk-to-Tape."
D2T
Short for "Disk-to-Tape."
DAT
Digital Audio Tape (DAT or R-DAT): A signal recording and playback medium developed by Sony in the mid 1980s for digital audio storage instead of analog. This technology has since been further developed by the DAT Manufacturers Group (DAT-MGM) as an open-standard technology.
DDS
Digital Data Storage (DDS): A format for storing and backing up computer data on magnetic tape that evolved from Digital Audio Tape (DAT) technology, which was originally created for CD-quality audio recording.
Differential
A cumulative backup of all changes made after the last full backup. The advantage to this is the quicker recovery time, requiring only a full backup and the latest differential backup to restore the system. The disadvantage is that for each day elapsed since the last full backup, more data needs to be backed up, especially if a majority of the data has been changed.
Disk Staging
Disk Staging (D2D) allows an administrator to direct backups to a defined volume, or volumes, of hard drives attached to the server to accelerate the speed of backups. The Disk Stage can be used as the sole backup target device, or as a cache that ultimately writes to tape (D2D2T) devices.
DLT
Digital Linear Tape (DLT) A kind of magnetic tape drive originally developed by DEC and now marketed by Quantum. DLT drives implement the Digital Lempel Ziv 1 (DLZ1) compression algorithm in a combination of hardware and firmware.
DNS
Domain Name System (DNS) - A general-purpose distributed, replicated, data query service chiefly used on Internet for translating hostnames into Internet addresses.
Exabyte
A company and, by extension, a tape format for computer data backup and transfer. Exabyte is also a unit of measure that measures computer data. An exabyte is 2^60 = 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes = 1024 petabytes or roughly 10^18 bytes.
Fibre Channel
An ANSI standard originally intended for high-speed SANs connecting servers, disc arrays, and backup devices, also later adapted to form the physical layer of Gigabit Ethernet.
Firewall
An integrated collection of security measures designed to prevent unauthorized electronic access to a networked computer system.
FireWire
(Or "IEEE 1394", "FireWire", "I-Link") A 1995 Macintosh/IBM PC serial bus interface standard offering high-speed communications and isochronous real-time data services.
FQDN
Fully Qualified Domain Name - (FQDN): The full name of a system, consisting of its local hostname and its domain name, including a top-level domain (tld). For example, "venera" is a hostname and "venera.isi.edu" is an FQDN. An FQDN should be sufficient to determine a unique Internet address for any host on the Internet. This process, called "name resolution", uses the Domain Name System (DNS).
GB
GigaByte - 1. A unit of computer memory or data storage capacity equal to 1,024 megabytes (2 to the 30 power bytes).
GID
A group identifier, often abbreviated to GID, is a numeric value used to represent a specific group. The range of values for a GID varies amongst different systems; at the very least, a GID can be between 0 and 32767, with one restriction: the login group for the Superuser must have GID 0.
GUI
Graphical User Interface - A graphical user interface (GUI) is a type of user interface item that allows people to interact with programs in more ways than typing.
hardware scan
The scan used by BRU Server to detect any attached tape devices. This scan is required for SCSI, FireWire, Fibre Channel, and USB attached drives and libraries.
HBA
A host bus adapter (HBA) is a circuit board and/or integrated circuit adapter that provides input/output (I/O) processing and physical connectivity between a server and a storage device.
HVD
High Voltage Differential - (HVD) Differential SCSI scheme that has been in use for years. The terminators run on 5 Volts DC instead of the new LVD technology that only uses 3.3 volts.
ICMP
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) - ICMP is a message control and error-reporting protocol between a host server and a gateway to the Internet. ICMP uses Internet Protocol (IP) datagrams, but the messages are processed by the IP software and are not directly apparent to the application user.
Incremental
An incremental backup is a backup method where multiple backups are kept (not just the last one). These backups will be incremental if each original piece of backed up information is stored only once, and then successive backups only contain the information that changed since a previous backup. As a backup method, it is highly efficient, since it allows for the illusion of storage of N copies of size S information chunks, with a total storage requirement much lower than NxS. If the original information that is backed up does not change between backups, the total size will approach just S. If it changes almost completely, the NxS limit will be approached.
inode
An administrative reference for Linux/Unix filesystems that contains specific information about each object on the filesystem.
IP Address
IP address - The numerical sequence that serves as an identifier for an Internet server. An IP address appears as a series of four groups of numbers separated by dots. The first group is a number between 1 and 255 and the other groups are a number between 0 and 255, such as 192.135.174.1. Every server has its own unique address.
KB
KiloByte - A unit of computer memory or data storage capacity equal to 1,024 (2 to the 10 power) bytes. Also the abbreviated form of Knowledge Base.
LAT
The Local Address Table (LAT) consists of a series of IP address ranges that define your internal network address space. Typically, the LAT contains all IP addresses associated with the internal network cards on the ISA Server computer, in addition to the private IP address ranges defined by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). For more information see the ISA product documentation.
Linear Tape File System
This file system view makes accessing files stored on the LTFS formatted media similar to accessing files stored on other forms of storage media such as disk or removable flash drives.
Local Address Table
The Local Address Table (LAT) consists of a series of IP address ranges that define your internal network address space. Typically, the LAT contains all IP addresses associated with the internal network cards on the ISA Server computer, in addition to the private IP address ranges defined by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). For more information see the ISA product documentation.
localhost
Default name describing the local computer address also known as the loopback address of the computer. For example, typing: "ping localhost" would ping the local IP address of 127.0.0.1 (the loopback address).
Loopback
A communication channel with only one endpoint. TCP/IP networks specify a loopback that allows client software to communicate with server software on the same computer. Users can specify an IP address, usually 127.0.0.1, which will point back to the computer's TCP/IP network configuration. The range of addresses for loopback functionality is the range of 127.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255. Similar to ping, loopback enables a user to test one's own network to ensure the IP stack is functioning properly.
LTFS
Short for "Linear Tape File System" - This file system view makes accessing files stored on the LTFS formatted media similar to accessing files stored on other forms of storage media such as disk or removable flash drives.
LTO
Linear Tape-Open (LTO) technology was developed jointly by HP, IBM and Quantum. LTO technology is an "open format" technology, which means that users will have multiple sources of product and media. The "open" nature of LTO technology also provides a means of enabling compatibility between different vendors' offerings.
LTO-1
LTO-1 Technology holds 100 native GB of data per tape and has a max native write speed of 15 MB/sec.
LTO-2
LTO-2 Technology can hold 200 native GB of data per tape and has a max native write speed of 30 MB/sec.
LTO-3
LTO-3 Technology can hold 400 native GB per tape and has a max native write speed of 80 MB/sec.
LTO-4
LTO-4 Technology can hold 800 native GB of data per tape and has a max native write speed of 120 MB/sec.
LTO-5
LTO-5 Technology can hold 1.5 native TB of data per tape and has a max native write speed of 140 MB/sec.
LUN
A logical unit number or LUN is simply the address assigned to a logical unit. A logical unit is a storage entity which can include part of the storage on a disk drive, the entire storage on a disk drive, the total storage on multiple drives in a disk array, or any combination thereof.
LVD
Low Voltage Differential - (LVD) A method of driving SCSI cables that will be formalized in the SCSI-3 specifications. LVD uses less power than the current differential drive (HVD), is less expensive and will allow the higher speeds of Ultra-2 SCSI. LVD requires 3.3 Volts DC instead of 5 Volts DC for HVD.
Mac OS X
Macintosh Operating System Ten - Uses the Darwin kernel and is based on FreeBSD, a Unix based operating system, thus making Mac OS X a Unix based operating system.
MB
MegaByte - A unit of computer memory or data storage capacity equal to 1,048,576 (2 to the 20 power) bytes.
MRS
Media Recognition System (MRS) is a method where pre-defined stripes are placed at the beginning of the media to identify the media. The MRS stripes are read to determine if the media is of data-grade. Data-grade media should be used in SCSI streaming devices since it is of the required quality and consistency to be used to store data (i.e., audio/video grade media should not be used).
MTA
Message Transfer Agent (MTA) - The program responsible for delivering e-mail messages. Upon receiving a message from a Mail User Agent or another MTA it stores it temporarily locally and analyses the recipients and either delivers it (local addressee) or forwards it to another MTA (routing). In either case it may edit and/or add to the message headers.
mtime
In Unix & Linux filesystems such as Mac OS X, AIX, HP-UX, Linux and BSD (among others) there are three times that the filesystem keeps track of, one of those times is the "mtime" or "modify time" of a file. The mtime is the timestamp for the last time the file contents were changed. It does not change with owner or permission changes, nor does it change when the file is opened. Only when the file contents itself are actually changed. The best way to view the mtime of a file is to use "ls -l " command.
MX
An MX record or Mail exchanger record is a type of resource record in the Domain Name System (DNS) specifying how Internet e-mail should be routed. MX records point to the servers that should receive e-mail, and their priority relative to each other.
NAT
Network Address Translation (NAT): The process of modifying network address information in datagram packet headers while in transit across a traffic routing device for the purpose of remapping a given address space into another.
NIC
Network Interface Controller - (NIC): An adapter circuit board installed in a computer to provide a physical connection to a network.
OFM
Open File Manager (OFM) - A utility from TOLIS Group for Windows that allows proper backups of open/locked files from BRU Server.
OS X
Abbreviated form of Macintosh Operating System Ten
PB
PetaByte - A unit of computer memory or data storage capacity equal to 1,024 terabytes (2 to the 50 power bytes).
PPP
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) - PPP is a protocol for communication between two computers using a serial interface, typically a personal computer connected by phone line to a server. For example, your Internet server provider may provide you with a PPP connection so that the provider's server can respond to your requests, pass them on to the Internet, and forward your requested Internet responses back to you. PPP uses the Internet protocol (IP) (and is designed to handle others). It is sometimes considered a member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols. Relative to the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model, PPP provides layer 2 (data-link layer) service. Essentially, it packages your computer's TCP/IP packets and forwards them to the server where they can actually be put on the Internet.
PVM
Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM): A software tool for parallel networking of computers. It is designed to allow a network of heterogeneous Unix and/or Windows machines to be used as a single distributed parallel processor. Thus large computational problems can be solved more cost effectively by using the aggregate power and memory of many computers. The software is very portable. The source, which is available free through netlib, has been compiled on everything from laptops to Crays.
QFA
Quick File Access (QFA) - A feature that is built into BRU to decrease recovery times of files.
Qlogic
QLogic Corporation is a California-based manufacturer of storage and system networking infrastructure solutions. Products include host bus adapters (HBAs), host channel adapters (HCAs) and SAN storage switches, storage routers.
RAM
Random Access Memory - Computer memory available to the user for creating, loading, or running programs and for the temporary storage and manipulation of data, in which time of access to each item is independent of the storage sequence.
SAIT
Super Advanced Intelligent Tape (SAIT). A type of backup tape similar to DLT, LTO, and SDLT. The technology used is newer than AIT.
SAM
Sequential Access Method (SAM) - Organizing data in a prescribed ascending or descending sequence. Searching sequential data requires reading and comparing each record, starting from the top or bottom of file. Magnetic tape is the common sequential access storage device.
SCSI
Short for "Small Computer System Interface." A computer interface used for connecting peripheral devices, such as external disk drives and scanners, to personal computers and each other, consisting of 25-50 individual signal paths (usually wires) bundled together and sharing a single connector plug
SDLT
Super Digital Linear Tape (SDLT). A type of backup tape similar to LTO & SAIT. The technology used is newer than DLT.
SLIP
Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) - Software allowing the Internet Protocol (IP), normally used on Ethernet, to be used over a serial line, e.g. an EIA-232 serial port connected to a modem. It is defined in RFC 1055. SLIP modifies a standard Internet datagram by appending a special SLIP END character to it, which allows datagrams to be distinguished as separate. SLIP requires a port configuration of 8 data bits, no parity, and EIA or hardware flow control. SLIP does not provide error detection, being reliant on other high-layer protocols for this. Over a particularly error-prone dial-up link therefore, SLIP on its own would not be satisfactory.
SmartRestore
Like most Unix-based operating systems, Linux and Mac OS X use shared files. These files are always active and are critical to system operation. A system crash can be a very real occurrence when trying to restore (overwrite) an active shared file. Before BRU attempts to restore a shared file it will move the existing file with its text busy flag (whether set, or not) and its memory pointers to a temporary location so the system can continue to operate. BRU then places the file being restored in the original location. The moved file is then removed from its temporary location when the system is rebooted.
SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) - A protocol defined in STD 10, RFC 821, used to transfer electronic mail between computers, usually over Ethernet. It is a server to server protocol, so other protocols are used to access the messages. The SMTP dialog usually happens in the background under the control of the message transfer agent, e.g. sendmail but it is possible to interact with an SMTP server using telnet to connect to the normal SMTP port, 25.
Subnet
A subnet (short for "subnetwork") is an identifiably separate part of an organization's network. Typically, a subnet may represent all the machines at one geographic location, in one building, or on the same local area network (LAN).
TB
TeraByte - A unit of computer memory or data storage capacity equal to 1,024 gigabytes (2 to the 40 power bytes).
TCP
Transmission Control Protocol - A protocol developed for the internet to get data from one network device to another; "TCP uses a retransmission strategy to insure that data will not be lost in transmission"
Terminal
The command line interface for Unix, Linux, and Mac OS X systems. It's also known as the Command Prompt on Windows systems.
Time Machine
Time Machine is a backup utility developed by Apple which is included with Mac OS X v10.5 (Leopard).
TOLIS
TOLIS means Talented Organization Leveraging Intelligent Solutions. The word TOLIS should appear in all capital letters whenever used since it is an acronym.
UDP
User Datagram Protocol - Internet standard network layer, transport layer and session layer protocols which provide simple but unreliable datagram services. UDP is defined in STD 6, RFC 768. It adds a checksum and additional process-to-process addressing information [to what?]. UDP is a connectionless protocol which, like TCP, is layered on top of IP. UDP neither guarantees delivery nor does it require a connection. As a result it is lightweight and efficient, but all error processing and retransmission must be taken care of by the application program. Unix manual page: udp(4).
UID
Unix-like operating systems identify users within the kernel by an unsigned integer value called a user identifier, often abbreviated to UID or User ID. The range of UID values varies amongst different systems; at the very least, a UID represents a 15-bit integer, ranging between 0 and 32767, with known restrictions
utime
utime changes the access and modification times of the inode specified by filename to the actime and modtime fields of buf respectively. If buf is NULL, then the access and modification times of the file are set to the current time.
Virtual Machine
A Virtual Machine (VM) is a software implementation of a machine (computer) that executes programs like a real machine.
VM
Acronym for "Virtual Machine." See "Virtual Machine" for more information.
VSS
Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) - A service from Microsoft that provides the backup infrastructure for the Microsoft Windows XP and Microsoft Windows Server 2003 operating systems.
VXA
Variable Speed Architecture (VXA) A type of backup tape similar to AIT.
Windows Internet Naming Service
Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) was designed specifically to support NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NetBT). WINS is required for any environment in which users access resources that have NetBIOS names. If you do not use WINS in such a network, you cannot connect to a remote network resource by using its NetBIOS name unless you use Lmhosts files, and you might be unable to establish file and print sharing connections.
WINS
Windows Internet Naming Service (WINS) was designed specifically to support NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NetBT). WINS is required for any environment in which users access resources that have NetBIOS names. If you do not use WINS in such a network, you cannot connect to a remote network resource by using its NetBIOS name unless you use Lmhosts files, and you might be unable to establish file and print sharing connections.
XBRU
XBRU is an X11 graphical interface for BRU Workstation and BRU Desktop. It's released under the QPL license.
Xsan
In computing, a storage area network (SAN) is an architecture to attach remote computer storage devices (such as disk arrays, tape libraries and optical jukeboxes) to servers in such a way that, to the operating system, the devices appear as locally attached.